Visit Website Did you know? Now most famous as a traitor to the American cause, General Benedict Arnold began the Revolutionary War as one of its earliest heroes, helping lead rebel forces in the capture of Fort Ticonderoga in May This First Continental Congress did not go so far as to demand independence from Britain, but it denounced taxation without representation, as well as the maintenance of the British army in the colonies without their consent, and issued a declaration of the rights due every citizen, including life, liberty, property, assembly and trial by jury.
The battles and events that took place were often strategically planned with the hopes of gaining more control over a region, getting access to supplies and outmaneuvering the enemy all while trying to avoid as many casualties and military defeats as possible.
These strategies were also influenced by the geography of the regionwhich often affected the outcome of the battles. Both sides had their own ideas on how to accomplish these goals and the strategies they used have been widely studied, scrutinized and even recreated.
In fact, numerous Revolutionary War strategy games are based on these very strategies and some types of battle reenactments, such as tactical battles or tactical events, use these strategies to try to defeat their opponents in recreations of the Revolutionary War battles.
The following is an overview of the strategies used in the Revolutionary War: British strategy changed throughout the course of the war as the British came up against more obstacles and challenges than they anticipated.
The British strategy at the beginning of the war was simply to contain the American Revolution in Massachusetts and prevent it from spreading. This proved difficult though when the British suffered devastating casualties at the Battle of Bunker Hill in June of during the Siege of Boston.
When powder for the cannons finally arrived on March 2, the Americans began firing on Boston. When the British saw the cannons on Dorchester Heights, they made an attempt to attack the heights but were thwarted by a storm. The new British strategy at this point was to capture New York City and use it as a base of operations.
The British successfully captured New York on September 15, and launched the next phase of the plan in This plan was to isolate New England, which was the heart of the rebellion, from the rest of the colonies by marching three British armies simultaneously from New York City, Montreal and Fort Oswego to meet in Albany and take control of the Hudson River, which formed a natural barrier along the western edge of New England.
But the defeat at Saratoga and the entry of France into the war early in led to a changed strategy of increasing reliance on Crown supporters in the colonies.
Leger led troops down from the Mohawk Valley to upstate New York. It all went awry when General Howe, for reasons unknown, decided to take a detour and led his troops to Philadelphia instead, where the seat of the Continental Congress was located, and captured the city. Realizing that a battle was brewing, Washington sent troops north and called for the militia to join them, which resulted in a large contingent of American troops and militia in the Saratoga area.
This resulted in the Battle of Saratoga on September 19, which was a devastating loss for the British, who lost two soldiers for every one on the American side. A second battle, the Battle of Bernis Heights, took place on October 7 when Burgoyne tried to break free from the colonial forces surrounding them but was defeated.
The defeat forced Burgoyne to withdraw his troops and surrender on October 17, Many historians consider these battles to be a major turning point in the Revolutionary War because these American military victories prompted France to join the war and support the patriot cause, which turned the conflict into a global war rather than a colonial rebellion.
As a result of their military losses and the French joining the conflict, the British decided to revisit the plan they had proposed earlier in the war, which was to focus their efforts on the loyalists in the Southern colonies in Georgia, South Carolina, North Carolina and Virginia.
After turning their attention to the South, the British soon had a number of military successes, such as their occupation of Savannah, Georgia in late and Charleston, South Carolina in May of and their victory at the Battle of Camden in South Carolina in But despite their modest success there, the British greatly overestimated loyalist sentiment in the South and their military presence there prompted many southern colonists who had been on the fence about the war to side with the patriots.
The British also struggled with getting access to their supply ships when they were fighting further inland. The patriots had easy access to their supplies and could also blend in among the general population.
An article by Major John A. Ultimately, the lack of sufficient reserve supplies, combined with cautious generalship, insufficient transportation, widespread corruption, and the lack of a coherent strategy to maximize the potential support of British loyalists in the colonies, ensured British failure.
These factors forced the British Army to fight a guerilla war—the only kind of war that the upstart United States could hope to win.
It is all over! Cogliano in his book Revolutionary America, Britain still had considerable resource to bring to bear in America, and British forces still occupied Savannah, Charleston, and New York. Nonetheless, six years of war in America had yielded few benefits to the British.
On February 27,Parliament voted to discontinue offensive operations in America. Russell Weigley saw the American strategy as one of attrition of enemy forces, or, at best, erosion.
In short, the mainstream of historical writing in the latter half of the twentieth century reflected the view that American strategy in the Revolutionary War was essentially one-dimensional-defensive.
Another strategy the Americans used to their advantage was the use of guerrilla warfare, which many of them had learned as soldiers during the French and Indian War in the ss, according to an NPR interview by Steve Inskeep with author Max Boot: Now, the American revolutionaries eventually did form a regular army.
But guerrilla tactics played a huge role in securing their independence.African Americans and the American Revolution. most Americans had already forgotten the extensive role black people had played on both sides during the War for Independence.
At the Centennial Celebration of the Revolution in Philadelphia, not a single speaker acknowledged the contributions of African Americans in establishing . *Profiles the military and political leaders of the American Revolution and the roles they played, including George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, Samuel Adams, Paul Revere, Benedict Arnold, and more.
*Examines the major battles of the Revolution, from Lexington to alphabetnyc.coms: 9. Oct 29, · American Revolution leader John Hancock () was a signer of the Declaration of Independence in and a governor of Massachusetts.
The colonial Massachusetts native was raised by his uncle, a wealthy Boston merchant. Joseph Warren † an American physician who played a leading role in American Patriot organizations in Boston in the early days of the American Revolution, eventually serving as President of the revolutionary Massachusetts Provincial Congress.
Warren enlisted Paul Revere and William Dawes on April 18, , to leave Boston and spread the . Watch video · The Revolutionary War was an insurrection by American Patriots in the 13 colonies to British rule, resulting in American independence.
The Revolutionary War . The English workhouse, an intellectual forerunner of early United States penitentiaries, was first developed as a "cure" for the idleness of the alphabetnyc.com time English officials and reformers came to see the workhouse as a more general system for rehabilitating criminals of all kinds.