Early in my teaching career I realised that the learners of different levels should have a sense of purpose, a sense of audience, and a sense of direction as well as be able to discover and articulate ideas in writing. Therefore, my personal opinion is that the more opportunities for expression learners are given the better writers they may become. The Product approach proved useful with early beginners and elementary levels; it enabled them to write whole pieces of communication and made them feel confident.
Based on beliefs about the structure of language and descriptive or contrastive linguistics. Involves isolation of grammatical and syntactic elements of L2 taught either deductively or inductively in a predetermined sequence.
Often involves much meta-linguistic content or "learning about the language" in order to learn the language. Based on theories of learning applied specifically to second language learning.
Focus is on the learning strategies that are compatible with the learners own style. L2 content is selected according to concepts and techniques that facilitate generalizations about the language, memorization and "competence" leading to "performance".
Focuses on the psychological and affective pre-dispositions of the learner that enhance or inhibit learning. Emphasizes interaction among and between teacher and students and the atmosphere of the learning situation as well as students' motivation for learning. Based on concepts adapted from counseling and social psychology.
Based on theories of language acquisition, often referred to as the "natural" approach, and on the use of language for communication.
Encompasses multiple aspects of the communicative act, with language structures selected according to their utility in achieving a communicative purpose. Instruction is concerned with the input students receive, comprehension of the "message" of language and student involvement at the students' level of competence.
The approach was generalized to teaching modern languages. Classes are taught in the students' mother tongue, with little active use of the target language. Vocabulary is taught in the form of isolated word lists.
Elaborate explanations of grammar are always provided. Grammar instruction provides the rules for putting words together; instruction often focuses on the form and inflection of words.
Reading of difficult texts is begun early in the course of study. Little attention is paid to the content of texts, which are treated as exercises in grammatical analysis.
Often the only drills are exercises in translating disconnected sentences from the target language into the mother tongue, and vice versa. Little or no attention is given to pronunciation. The Direct Approach This approach was developed initially as a reaction to the grammar-translation approach in an attempt to integrate more use of the target language in instruction.
Lessons begin with a dialogue using a modern conversational style in the target language. Material is first presented orally with actions or pictures.
There is no translation. The preferred type of exercise is a series of questions in the target language based on the dialogue or an anecdotal narrative. Questions are answered in the target language. Grammar is taught inductively—rules are generalized from the practice and experience with the target language.
Verbs are used first and systematically conjugated only much later after some oral mastery of the target language.The presenters will review the results of a survey, which describe the place and characteristics of the teaching of academic writing currently in classes and give an overview of instructional approaches that teachers can use.
May Shih is a Lecturer in the ESL and MA in TEFL programs at San Francisco State University. She has taught ESL and TESL courses at Washington State University, the University of Wisconsin-Madison, the University of Oregon, and the University of Washington and has used content-based approaches in.
Approaches to understanding the nature of academic writing in higher education and the challenges writing pedagogy presents to both students and academics have, until recently, tended to adopt quite distinct methodologies. Teaching Writing for Academic Purposes to Multilingual Students Instructional Approaches, 1st Edition 2 Context and the Teaching of Academic Writing: Bringing Together Theory and Practice.
Approaches to Academic Language Development. 10 Facilitating L2 Writers’ Academic . Approaches Reflected in Academic Writing MOOCs Since it was first introduced in , Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) have been attracting a lot of interest.
Since then, MOOCs have emerged as powerful platforms for teaching and learning academic writing. Approaches to instruction have variously targeted process, product and purpose of writing.
More recent approaches both to its teaching and assessment recognise the need to integrate all aspects of writing.
Teaching Academic Writing in (). L2 composing: Strategies and perceptions. In B. Leeds (ed.), Writing in a Second Language.