Compounding in sign language Compounding is the most common type of word formation process. It is the combination of two or more words in order to form a new word. Compound word is a single word that is made up of two or more root or free morphemes. For example in English, butterfly, homework, lighthouse and breakfast.
Often the effect is a change Compounding word formation part of speech. Affixation Subtype of Derivation The most common type of derivation is the addition of one or more affixes to a root, as in the word derivation itself.
This process is called affixation, a term which covers both prefixation and suffixation. Blending Blending is one of the most beloved of word formation processes in English.
It is especially creative in that speakers take two words and merge them based not on morpheme structure but on sound structure. The resulting words are called blends. Usually in word formation we combine roots or affixes along their edges: One morpheme follows the next and each one has identifiable boundaries.
The morphemes do not overlap. But in blending, part of one word is stitched onto another word, without any regard for where one morpheme ends and another begins.
The swoosh part remains whole and recognizable in the blend, but the tika part is not a morpheme, either in the word swastika or in the Compounding word formation. The blend is a perfect merger of form, and also of content. The meaning contains an implicit analogy between the swastika and the swoosh, and thus conceptually blends them into one new kind of thing having properties of both, but also combined properties of neither source.
The earliest blends in English only go back to the 19th century, with wordplay coinages by Lewis Carroll in Jabberwocky. For example, he introduced to the language slithy, formed from lithe and slimy, and galumph, from gallop and triumph. Some blends that have been around for quite a while include brunch breakfast and lunchmotel motor hotelelectrocute electric and executesmog smoke and fog and cheeseburger cheese and hamburger.
These go back to the first half of the twentieth century. Others, such as stagflation stagnation and inflationspork spoon and forkand carjacking car and hijacking arose since the s.
Here are some more recent blends I have run across: For example, the word rifle is a fairly modern clipping of an earlier compound rifle gun, meaning a gun with a rifled barrel.
Rifled means having a spiral groove causing the bullet to spin, and thus making it more accurate. Another clipping is burger, formed by clipping off the beginning of the word hamburger. Acronyms Acronyms are formed by taking the initial letters of a phrase and making a word out of it.
Acronyms provide a way of turning a phrase into a word. The classical acronym is also pronounced as a word. Scuba was formed from self-contained underwater breathing apparatus. Acronyms were being used more and more by military bureaucrats, and soldiers coined snafu in an apparent parody of this overused device.
Sometimes an acronym uses not just the first letter, but the first syllable of a component word, for example radar, RAdio Detection And Ranging and sonar, SOund Navigation and Ranging.
Radar forms an analogical model for both sonar and lidar, a technology that measures distance to a target and and maps its surface by bouncing a laser off it. There is some evidence that lidar was not coined as an acronym, but instead as a blend of light and radar.
Based on the word itself, either etymology appears to work, so many speakers assume that lidar is an acronym rather than a blend. Acronyms are a subtype of initialism. Initialisms also include words made from the initial letters of a Phrase but NOT pronounced as a normal word - it is instead pronounced as a string of letters.
Organzation names aroften initialisms of his type. United States UN or U. Sometimes this type is called a Reverse Acronym or a Backronym.
These can be thought of as a special case of acronyms. Memos, email, and text messaging text-speak are modes of communication that give rise to both clippings and acronyms, since these word formation methods are designed to abbreviate.
Used by scholars making notes on texts. ROFL - rolling on the floor laughing ROFLMAO - rolling on the floor laughing my ass off Reanalysis Sometimes speakers unconsciously change the morphological boundaries of a word, creating a new morph or making an old one unrecognizable.
Many folk etymologies are cases of reanalysis in which the word is not only reanalysis but it changes under the influence of the new understanding of its morphemes. The result is that speakers think it has a different origin than it does.
Analogy Sometimes speakers take an existing word as a model and form other words using some of its morphemes as a fixed part, and changing one of them to something new, with an analogically similar meaning. Cheeseburger was formed on the analogy of hamburger, replacing a perceived morpheme ham with cheese.
Novel creation In novel creation, a speaker or writer forms a word without starting from other morphemes.Compounding, composition or nominal composition is the process of word formation that creates compound lexemes.
That is, in familiar terms, compounding occurs when two or more words are joined to make one longer word. The articles in this series define and exemplify the most common word formation processes, or the creation of new words, in English including derivation, back-formation, conversion, compounding, clipping, blending, abbreviations, acronyms, eponyms, coinages, nonce words, borrowing, and calquing.
Compounding is a word formation process based on the combination of lexical elements. The elements can be characterized as words, stems, or lexemes, depending on the language and on the theoretical framework adopted.
Compounds are written sometimes as one word (sunglasses), sometimes as two hyphenated words (life-threatening), and sometimes as two separate words (football stadium).
Compounding is the most common type of word-formation in English. Types of Compounds. Compounding exists in several different forms and parts of speech, including the following. Compounding is the word formation process in which two or more lexemes combine into a single new word.
Compound words may be written as one word or as two words joined with a hyphen. Compound words may be written as one word or as two words joined with a hyphen.
Compounding, composition or nominal composition is the process of word formation that creates compound lexemes. That is, in familiar terms, compounding occurs when two or more words are joined to make one longer word.