Index of Names Reviews This is a very interesting, informative account of how information technology has evolved into what it is today. It shows the reader what had to be accomplished so we could use the Internet, a research tool that we use in our everyday lives. This handbook could be useful to anyone who has an interest in information technology and its abundant history.
Image via Designing With Type. Kline sends the first message across an early version of the internet: Are these two moments in time comparable? Before the invention of moveable type, books were rare and prized. Literacy was limited to scholars and those with the means and money to learn how to read, sometimes with varying results; editorial and visual standards were rarely consistent.
From approximately AD, paper making and block printing spread from China to Europe largely because of the Crusades.
The Chinese had been making paper since at least AD, and an alchemist by the name of Pi Sheng had invented a moveable type system that was functional but nearly unmanageable thanks to the over 44, characters that comprise written Chinese.
Sheng created letters for printing from a mixture of glue and clay that were cured by baking; they required a sophisticated system sorted by rhyme just to keep them organized for printing. By the 14th century, the Renaissance was beginning in Europe. The availability of paper, thirst for knowledge and new popularity of universities was calling for innovation—printers all over the continent were working toward a mechanization of print that would allow Gutenberg to internet to produce more books more quickly.
Relief printing and illumination alone could not keep up with the demand for literature. His casting system allowed him to create large amounts of type quickly and efficiently, which was imperative when he needed to use as many as 50, characters at one time.
Type mold with matrix removed to show a newly cast H. Type mold opened so the newly cast H can be removed. Gutenberg chose textura for his font design; it was a wise choice as the letterforms were squared nicely, consistently sized and required very few curves.
Textura was often used by German scribes at the time and is a lettering style most commonly associated with the Gothic period.
Textura is a type of blackletter, best known for its lovely texture on the printed page and tall, narrow forms. Gutenberg used several ligatures letter combinations such as fl, fi, and tt which further enhanced the printed texture, and printing in Latin meant he could abbreviate freely to achieve optimal text justification left and right alignment of text—fully justified means no ragged edges.
Image via Wikimedia Commons. Pages one through nine are set with forty lines, page ten with forty-one; historians speculate that Gutenberg decided to increase the number of lines per page to improve paper efficiency if that was his intention, he would have saved sixty pages by doing so.
The finished product is still known for its spectacular typography and presswork: Image via Library of Congress.
The invention of moveable type and improved presswork allowed both literature and art prints to be distributed at an unprecedented scale, improving literacy and education for both wealthy and lower classes. Art prints began to democratize art in the same way moveable type began to democratize books.
The two advances are possibly at odds, however, if we consider the emphasis each event placed on quality. Gutenberg may not have been able to finish the printing of his masterpiece himself, but he did go on to open a new print shop and produce several more works before his death in His invention of moveable type in Europe—in a culture whose alphabet systems benefited hugely from an adaptable, flexible system—laid the groundwork to distribute information that would have been previously out of reach for the average individual.
The technology to network almost instantly with someone on the opposite side of the world has changed the way we learn, communicate, and work. The impact of moveable type and the impact of the internet years later are undeniably comparable in cultural importance.Gutenberg is a full-service digital marketing company that offers internet marketing services including SEM, SEO, Email, Social, PPC, Online Advertising & Website Development.
From Gutenberg to the Internet presents 63 original readings from the history of computing, networking, and telecommunications arranged thematically by chapters.
Most of the readings record basic discoveries from the s through the s that laid the foundation of the . Commodifying the remote word – from Gutenberg to Zuckerberg [Through my ratings, reviews and edits I'm providing intellectual property and labor to alphabetnyc.com Inc., listed on Nasdaq, which fully owns alphabetnyc.com and in posted revenues for $90 billion and a $ million loss/5.
Project Gutenberg began in by Michael Hart as a community project to make plain text versions of books available freely to all. The history of free expression is inextricably intertwined with advances in speech technology.
However, until recently, most forms of communication were limited and controlled by so-called “gatekeepers” who had the power to limit or control the ability of ordinary individuals to communicate with each other.
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