Allied troops in VladivostokAugustduring the Allied intervention in the Russian Civil War While most historians trace the origins of the Cold War to the period immediately following World War II, others argue that it began with the October Revolution in Russia in when the Bolsheviks took power. Since the time of the formation of the soviet republics, the states of the world have divided into two camps: There — in the camp of capitalism — national enmity and inequality, colonial slavery, and chauvinism, national oppression and pogroms, imperialist brutalities and wars.
Abramowitz Never in the 38 years that Freedom House has been monitoring global press freedom has the United States figured as much in the public debate about the topic as in and the first months of Press freedom globally has declined to its lowest levels in 13 years, thanks both to new threats to journalists and media outlets in major democracies, and to further crackdowns on independent media in authoritarian countries like Russia and China.
But it is the far-reaching attacks on the news media and their place in a democratic society by Donald Trump, first as a candidate and now as president of the United States, that fuel predictions of further setbacks in the years to come.
They also raise concern that the U. Still strong, but in decline The United States remains one of the most press-friendly countries in the world. It enjoys lively, aggressive, and diverse media, and some of the strongest legal protections for reporting and expression anywhere in the world.
With a handful of exceptions in recent years, reporters in the United States—in contrast to counterparts in some other countries—have been able to pursue their profession without fear of physical violence. But press freedom has been on a modest decline in the United States, owing to a variety of factors that predate the Trump presidency.
The rise of the internet weakened the financial underpinnings of long-established media organizations; the lack of a new, sustainable business model has diminished coverage of local news, and made in-depth investigative reporting harder to support.
The polarization of media into outlets that pursue openly partisan agendas has accelerated, reducing public trust. And the ability of a billionaire Peter Thiel to use a privacy lawsuit to help bankrupt a media company Gawker last year made publishers and editors uneasy.
Several recent presidents have sought to limit their exposure to reporters, aggressively attempted to bypass mainstream news outlets, or made it difficult to access government records under the Freedom of Information Act. The Obama administration pursued a crackdown on federal officials who leaked information to the press, while many journalists chafed at what they regarded as excessive efforts to control access to the Obama White House.
InFreedom House saw a slight decline in press freedom in the United States, due mainly to harassment and roughing up of journalists at Trump rallies and a campaign of antisemitic abuse against Jewish journalists on Twitter. It is too soon to know whether the president will follow through on some of his most extreme campaign proposals, such as the threat to pursue more restrictive libel laws.
Should he continue his attacks on the press, it could further erode public confidence in the media and set the stage for court or legislative measures that would set back freedom.
Rhetoric, however, is different from governance. In Latin America, leaders who publicly criticized independent media and journalists followed up with attempts to break apart media companies, revoke broadcast licenses, or impose onerous regulatory oversight.
In countries including Turkey and Hungary, ruling parties have engineered more friendly media sectors through opaque or coerced ownership changes.
The United States will not necessarily follow the same path; it has stronger constitutional guarantees of freedom of the press and speech, as well as robust legislative and judicial systems that can check executive power.
Though these institutions may be tested, there is ample reason to hope that U. A greater danger is that the United States will stop being a model and aspirational standard for other countries. Protection of press freedom in the United States remains vital to the defense and expansion of press freedom worldwide; indeed, it is a cornerstone of global democracy.
When political leaders in the United States lambaste the media, it encourages their counterparts abroad to do the same. The sobering alternative model, seen in authoritarian countries, is to extinguish press freedom, the better to allow a political party, movement, or leader to control information—and to use that control to retain power indefinitely.
Further weakening of press freedom in the United States would be a setback for democracy everywhere. Political leaders and other partisan forces in many democracies—including the United States, Poland, the Philippines, and South Africa—attacked the credibility of the independent and mainstream media through alarmingly hostile rhetoric, personalized abuse online, and indirect editorial pressure.
They sought to delegitimize critical or impartial sources of information and reshape news coverage to their advantage, apparently rejecting the traditional watchdog role of a free press in democratic societies. Meanwhile, pressure on journalists in more restrictive environments continued unabated.
The governments of Russia and China—having established near-complete control over the domestic media—stepped up their efforts to interfere in, and disrupt, the media environments in neighboring countries and those farther afield. And authorities in settings such as Turkey, Ethiopia, and Venezuela used political or social unrest as a pretext to crack down further on independent or opposition-oriented outlets.
Officials in several countries in sub-Saharan Africa, the Middle East, and Asia extended restrictive laws to online speech, or simply shut down telecommunications services at crucial moments. There were a few positive developments during the year, as governments in Afghanistan, Argentina, Panama, and Sri Lanka moved to establish better relations with the press and improve media environments that had suffered under their predecessors.
However, the practical effects of many of these improvements remain to be seen.Donald Trump was right. He inherited a mess. In January , American foreign policy was, if not in crisis, in big trouble. Strong forces were putting stress on the old global .
In a crisis, sometimes you don’t tell the whole story Private equity: inside the fall of Abraaj Trade war fears spook mutual fund investors. Nov 22, · For essays by Hobsbawm and others, see Aston, ed., Crisis in Europe, – View all notes An outstanding example of a more recent publication on the subject is Geoffrey Parker’s Global Crisis: War, Climate Change and Catastrophe in the Seventeenth Century.
The Global Financial Crisis and Its Impact on EEE Trade Export growth had been increasing at a roughly similar rate in most of the world’s major geographical regions in the two years prior to the crisis (figure 5).
elsewhere. (See Box I for a comparison of the Asian crisis with the current international financial crisis). Despite the underlying strength of the economic and financial fundamentals during the run-up to the current international financial crisis, there were several near-term risks to the outlook in .
After being taken down twice by Blogger within a single week, we got the message: It’s Time To Go. Gates of Vienna has moved to a new address.