Pathophysiology—An acute or chronic inflammation of the gallbladder associated with obstruction by gallstones a. Common bile duct stones are formed in the bile duct primary or formed in and transported from the gallbladder secondary. Cholelithiasis is usually asymptomatic.
How to Write a Summary of an Article? Coronary Artery Disease CAD is one of these clinical conditions that affect approximately 13 million people Rimmerman, Because coronary diseases are the leading cause of death in men and women, nurses need to be involved in the care and education of people with or without CAD.
Nurses play an important role in the treatment of CAD by offering and supplying comfort for anxiety and pain, minimizing symptoms and side effects, educating patients on the disease process, and helping to reduce risks and promote healthier lifestyles.
Pathophysiology The heart is supplied blood, oxygen, and nutrients by the coronary arteries. When functioning normally, the coronary arteries ensure adequate oxygenation of the myocardium at all levels of cardiac activity Klabunde, CAD is a heart disease that is caused by impaired blood flow to or through the coronary arteries.
Several disorders can arise from the disease ranging from myocardial ischemia to myocardial infarction. When this blood flow is interrupted, damage ensues. Blood flow can be blocked by atherosclerosis, the buildup of fats and cholesterol in and on the artery walls plaques Mayo Clinic, When the plaques are disrupted and a thrombus is formed, blood flow is obstructed and a myocardial infarction MI can occur.
This obstruction starves the heart of oxygen and can cause angina chest pain and necrosis of the heart muscle.
Patient teaching should include modifiable risks that can be avoided such as smoking, obesity, uncontrolled hypertension, high LDL levels and low HDL levels, uncontrolled diabetes, high stress, and sedentary lifestyles Mayo Clinic, Many of these can be controlled by diet, exercise, and smoking cessation.
Since these factors cannot be controlled, it is extremely important to control the modifiable ones especially if the patient is at greater risk due to non-modifiable factors. Pathophysiology of MI Myocardial infarctions affect approximately?
MI is characterized by the ischemic death of myocardial tissue associated with CAD. This occurs when blood flow through the coronary arteries is significantly reduced or blocked and the heart muscle does not receive enough oxygen.
Other symptoms can be fatigue, dyspnea, and heart palpitations. If that is not possible, medications can be used to reduce the oxygen demand by the heart Klabunde, Treatment options for CAD include reducing risk factors, use of medications, and surgery.
Patients can slow the disease process by stopping smoking, eating healthier, and participating in more active lifestyles. Medications that can be used are anti-platelets and anticoagulants that dissolve clots, or anti-angina drugs such as beta blockers decrease myocardial oxygen consumption by decreasing the actions of the sympathetic nervous systemcalcium channel blockers decreases eart rate and strength of contraction and relaxes blood vessels, decreasing blood pressureor nitroglycerin dilates the arteries to increase blood flow, reducing myocardial oxygen consumption Smeltzer, S.
Usually cardiac catheterizations are done to determine blockage percentages Appendix B.
In extreme cases of CAD, stents can be implanted within the artery to restore blood flow or bypass grafts can be placed from an artery or vein elsewhere in the body to bypass the diseased segment Klamunde, Nursing Diagnoses CAD can be life threatening if the disease is allowed to progress.
Therefore measures should be taken to prevent progression. Proper, thorough assessment and nursing interventions can help.
The first priority nursing diagnosis for a patient with CAD would be: This is the first priority because if the heart is not properly fed, the pump can fail and will result in inadequate circulation for the whole body which could cause death.
The second priority nursing diagnosis would be:Case Study Posting Requirements. Make sure all of the topics in the case study have been addressed. Cite at least three sources—journal articles, textbooks or evidenced-based websites to .
Writing nursing papers may be troubling experience for most college students. alas, nursing packages are writing-intensive and students are predicted to publish tens of nursing essays, nursing research papers, nursing term papers, and at graduate applications, nursing dissertations.
Nursing: Nursing and Health Care Essay. blink of an eye. During the Crimean War in , Florence Nightingale, the mother of modern nursing, began to clean hospital tools which made things better for the lives of the people that she was helping.
Plan Action: Discuss a plan of nursing care for the patient at the time you are caring for them that addresses the identified nursing diagnoses/problems. The planned nursing interventions should be detailed and supported by rationales.
Nursing Care Plan. Student Course Date Instructor Pediatric nursing care plans.
New Jersey: Prentice Hall. Deanna, O. (). Sanchezalvarez,Alicia. History & Physical (IP Physician), 4 pages. Are you looking for a similar paper or any other quality academic essay?
Then look no further. Care Plan Rubric and Instructions for NRS Assessment (15%) Pathophysiology (15%) sheets) Care Plan Guide: Choose a patient that you have cared for this or a nursing Care Plan book.
This section is worth 1Oo/o.
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The section on interventions should include what interventions were performed during your care. Avoid the use of first .