There are approximately 25, islands, atolls and islets in Oceania. The islands of Tonga, Tahiti, and Fiji are located within two of these three areas. Polynesia means "many islands," and includes within its 5 million squares miles the Kingdom of Tonga and the Territory of French Polynesia, where Tahiti is located.
Many writers still treat opium smoking by Chinese as a moral and even ethnic issue, as if Chinese were somehow more guilty than other people of addiction to opiate drugs.
Chinese-American historians have tended to shy away from the subject entirely. Do they feel that it somehow reflects badly on their culture or themselves? Opium use among Chinese immigrants was very widespread, economically important, and -- until -- perfectly legal in most parts of the United States and Canada.
The smugglers of opium, most of whom were European-Americans, were criminals, though tolerated and even respected in the Pacific Northwest.
Smokers of opium, the majority of whom in those days were Chinese, may have been addicts but were neither criminals nor outcasts. Opium made hard lives more bearable and, perhaps due to easy availability and modest prices, seems not to have caused nearly as much violent crime as alcohol did then or as opioid drugs like heroin and oxycontin do nowadays.
So we propose to discuss opium use among North American Chinese frankly and straightforwardly. We feel that there is no shame in what happened a hundred years ago and that there are lessons in it for the modern world.
While many American and Canadian Chinese of the late s may have been addicts, their cultural systems kept the drug under control in spite of that. We in the early s should learn to do the same.
Beecher, the newly appointed and unusually bribe-resistant Collector of the U. Customs office at Port Townsend, pulls off a coup. Learning that steamers on the Washington-Alaska route often loaded illicit opium at Victoria on the way north and then brought it back south labeled as a staple commodity, he posts a pair of trusted men as spies in Victoria.
In November they send word to Beecher that the steamship Idaho has loaded fourteen suspicious barrels marked "Ships Stores" at Victoria and proceeded north. When the Idaho reappears, it is searched rigorously. Only pounds of opium are found, hidden in a washstand. What has happened to the rest?
There he discovers the fourteen barrels, labeled "Salted Fish" but filled with smoking opium of the best quality. This provided the same kind of incentive and potential for abuse as modern rules allowing police departments to keep vehicles used for transporting illegal narcotics.
Customs office in Ogdensburg, NY. Gardner apparently gets out of this by claiming that it was part of his official duties but is then arrested again, for arranging the smuggling of another pounds of opium from Canada to Tacoma on the steamer George Starr.
At his trial on June 29, he is accused of trying to cover his tracks by sending the opium to Wallula in Eastern Washington by train, then to Portland, then to Seattle.
He is further accused of entering into a conspiracy with other customs inspectors. Charles Haines of Chicago, is arrested in Seattle for having removed the original pounds from Ogdensburg; he presumably has brought it to Washington State and passed it to Gardner.
No Chinese are mentioned in the relevant newspaper articles. It is then either sold to Chinese of shipped to Portland and San Francisco for transportation East in trunks, valises, etc. It found an undeclared quantity of opium and seized it and the vessel.
The sale and use of opium did not become illegal in the U. It was banned in British Columbia a year earlier, in Harbor as secretly and mysteriously as when she sailed from that place six weeks ago, heavily laden with opium and Chinese.Frequently asked questions about the transcontinental railroad.
Central Pacific Railroad Photographic History Museum. West publishes seven regional reporters (Atlantic, North Eastern, North Western, Pacific, Southern, South Eastern, South Western). The National Reporter System covers the appellate courts of all the states and the District of Columbia.
A map in the front of each regional reporter volume shows which states are included. Frequently asked questions about the transcontinental railroad.
Central Pacific Railroad Photographic History Museum. This list of comics publishing companies lists companies, specifically publishing companies who primarily publish alphabetnyc.com art is an art medium used to present ideas or stories via images.
The images are usually arranged in panels in sequence that convey the story. The citational footnote style is an alternative to the traditional placement of citations, using footnotes only for the citational content that would otherwise appear in the body of an opinion if either the running text citation style (§ [b]) or the citations within parentheses style (§ [c]) were used.
Clearly an interesting book. My father was a Seabee on Guadalcanal and saw the action described in this book. The Seabees converted Guadalcanal and other islands into full fledged military bases that turned around the Pacific War.