Infant attachment[ edit ] The attachment system serves to achieve or maintain proximity to the attachment figure. In close physical proximity this system is not activated, and the infant can direct its attention to the outside world.
Jamie LoveSalon. But for areas such as health, patents can also restrict access to medicines for those who cannot afford them.
In addition, large corporations from developed countries are patenting so many resources from developing countries that it makes it difficult for those nations to be able to produce medicines for themselves.
However, there are some provisions in the TRIPS agreement to allow generics, but that is only when there is an emergency and the products are not used for commercial use and even this clause is under attack from the US and pharmaceutical companies.
Former World Bank Chief Economist and Nobel Prize winner for economics, Joseph Stiglitz explained in an editorial in the prestigious British Medical Journal that Intellectual property differs from other property—restricting its use is inefficient as it costs nothing for another person to use it.
Intellectual property rights, however, enable one person or company to have exclusive control of the use of a particular piece of knowledge, thereby creating monopoly power. Monopolies distort the economy. Restricting the use of medical knowledge not only affects economic efficiency, but also life itself.
We tolerate such restrictions in the belief that they might spur innovation, balancing costs against benefits. But the costs of restrictions can outweigh the benefits. It is hard to see how the patent issued by the US government for the healing properties of turmeric, which had been known for hundreds of years, stimulated research.
Had the patent been enforced in India, poor people who wanted to use this compound would have had to pay royalties to the United States.
These rights were intended to reduce access to generic medicines and they succeeded. As generic medicines cost a fraction of their brand name counterparts, billions could no longer afford the drugs they needed.
But what have they received in return? Drug companies spend more on advertising and marketing than on research, more on research on lifestyle drugs than on life saving drugs, and almost nothing on diseases that affect developing countries only.
This is not surprising. Poor people cannot afford drugs, and drug companies make investments that yield the highest returns. Notice that impedes growth, and development and is intended to. It is also an example of inequality being structured into law, also summarized here: Western countries, led by the United States, have fought strenuously on the international front to protect those patents—in effect, placing a greater value on intellectual property, in the name of spurring innovation and saving more lives in the future, than on saving lives currently at risk.
WTO patent rules allow 20 years of exclusive rights to make the drugs. Hence, the price is set by the company, leaving governments and patients little room to negotiate, unless a government threatens to overturn the patent with a compulsory license.
Such a mechanism authorizes a producer other than the patent holder to produce a generic version of the product though the patent-holder does get some royalty to recognize their contribution. Parallel importing allows a nation to effectively shop around for the best price of the same drug which may be sold in many countries at different prices.
These are potentially very effective tools to get the price down.Earlychildhood NEWS is the online resource for teachers and parents of young children, infants to age 8.
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Play also offers an ideal opportunity for parents to engage fully with their children. Despite the benefits derived from play for both children and parents, time for free play has been markedly reduced for some children. Child Development Abstracts & Bibliography – Reference source to the current literature related to the growth and development of children by the Society for Research in Child Development.
Selections from about English and foreign language journals, technical reports, and books that cover education and the biomedical and behavioral sciences. Child development entails the biological, psychological and emotional changes that occur in human beings between birth and the end of adolescence, as the individual progresses from dependency to increasing alphabetnyc.com is a continuous process with a predictable sequence, yet having a unique course for every child.
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