Spain, and later Mexico, had settled a series of communities along the south banks of the river, which provided protection from Comanche and Apache raids from the north. Prior to major water-control projects on the Rio Grande such as Elephant Butte Dikewhich was constructed in the early 20th century, the river flooded often. San Elizario was a relatively large community south of the river from its founding in until an flood changed the course of the river, leaving San Elizario on "La Isla", a new island between the new and old channels of the Rio Grande.
Subdivisions[ edit ] Despite various similarities in cultural and religious practices, scholars have proposed divisions of contemporary Pueblos into smaller groups based on linguistic and individual manifestations of the broader Puebloan culture. Pueblos in San elizario Mexico Divisions based on linguistic affiliation[ edit ] The clearest division between Puebloans relates to the languages they speak.
Pueblo peoples speak languages from four distinct language families, which means they San elizario completely different languages whose speakers cannot understand one another, with English now working as the lingua franca of the region.
Divisions based on cultural practices[ edit ] Farming techniques[ edit ] Debra Haaland, one of the first Native woman elected for the House of Representativesis puebloan Laguna Anthropologists have studied Pueblo peoples extensively and published various classifications of their subdivisions.
InFred Russell Eggan contrasted the peoples of the Eastern and Western Pueblos, based largely on their subsistence farming techniques.
Both groups cultivate mostly maize cornbut squash and beans have also been staple Pueblo foods all around the region. Kinship systems and Religion[ edit ] InPaul Kirchhoff published a division of Pueblo peoples into two groups based on culture.
They maintain multiple kivas for sacred ceremonies. Their creation story tells that humans emerged from the underground. They emphasize four or six cardinal directions as part of their sacred cosmology, San elizario in the north.
Four and seven are numbers considered significant in their rituals and symbolism. They practice endogamyor marriage within the clan.
They have two kivas or two groups of kivas in their pueblos. Their belief system is based in dualism. Their creation story recounts the emergence of the people from underwater.
They use five directions, beginning in the west. Their ritual numbers are based on multiples of three. Around the first millennium CE, however, farming became the main means to obtain food. Water control features are common among Mimbres branch sites, which date from the 10th through 12th centuries CE.
The nature and density of Mogollon residential villages changed through time. The earliest Mogollon villages were small hamlets composed of several pithouses houses excavated into the ground surface, with stick and thatch roofs supported by a network of posts and beams, and faced on the exterior with earth.
Village sizes increased over time and, by the 11th centuryvillages composed of ground level dwellings made with rock and earth walls, with roofs supported by post and beam networks, became common. Cliff-dwellings became common during the 13th and 14th centuries.
Hohokam culture Hohokam is term borrowed from the O'odham languageused to define an archaeological culture that relied on irrigation canals to water their crops since as early as the 9th century CE.
Their irrigation system techniques allowed for its adherents to expand into the largest population in the Southwest by Archaeologists working at a major archaeological dig in the s in the Tucson Basinalong the Santa Cruz River, identified a culture and people that were ancestors of the Hohokam who might have occupied southern Arizona as early as BCE.
This prehistoric group from the Early Agricultural Period grew corn, lived year-round in sedentary villages, and developed sophisticated irrigation canals from the beginning of the common era to about the middle of the 15th century.
Within a larger context, the Hohokam culture area inhabited a central trade position between the Patayan situated along the Lower Colorado River and in southern California; the Trincheras of SonoraMexico; the Mogollon culture in eastern Arizona, southwest New Mexico, and northwest ChihuahuaMexico; and the Ancestral Puebloans in northern Arizona, northern New Mexico, southwest Colorado, and southern Utah.
These villages were accessible only by rope or through rock climbing. However, the first Ancestral Puebloan homes and villages were based on the pit-house, a common feature in the Basketmaker periods.
Villages consisted of apartment-like complexes and structures made from stone, adobe mud, and other local materials, or were carved into the sides of canyon walls. Design details from Ancestral Puebloan villages contain elements from cultures as far away as present-day Mexico.
In their day, these ancient towns and cities were usually multistoried and multipurposed buildings surrounding open plazas and viewsheds. They were occupied by hundreds to thousands of Ancestral Pueblo peoples. These population complexes hosted cultural and civic events and infrastructure that supported a vast outlying region hundreds of miles away linked by transportation roadways.
Pueblo architecture and the rise of the Puebloan city state[ edit ] By about to AD, the Puebloans began to move away from ancient pit houses dug in cliffs and to construct connected rectangular rooms arranged in apartment- Ruins of Pueblo Bonito, in Chaco Canyon like structures made of adobe and adapted to sites.
Bythey had developed planned villages composed of large terraced buildings, each with many rooms.
These apartment-house villages were often constructed on defensive sites: The largest of these villages, Pueblo Bonito in Chaco CanyonNew Mexico, contained around rooms in five stories; it may have housed as many as persons.Thank you for being part of Centro San Vicente, a (c)(3) non-profit Federally Qualified Health Center, and entrusting us to deliver you high quality health care and services.
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