The evolution of computer languages infographic The evolution of computer languages infographic By Sebastian Anthony on August 1, at 8: Programming languages, believe it or not, have existed for over years, since the invention of the punch-card-programmable Jacquard loom. It was a whole years before the first electrical, programmable computers would burst into existence, however. Machine-specific assembly language in the s was probably the first vaguely human-readable programming language, but by the s computer engineers realized that assembly language was far too laborious and error-prone to build entire systems out of — and thus in the first modern programming language was born:
Language types Machine and assembly languages A machine language consists of the numeric codes for the operations that a particular computer can execute directly. Machine language instructions typically use some bits to represent operations, such as addition, and some to represent operands, or perhaps the location of the next instruction.
Machine language is difficult to read and write, since it does not resemble conventional mathematical notation or human language, and its codes vary from computer to computer. Assembly language is one level above machine language. It uses short mnemonic codes for instructions and allows the programmer to introduce names for blocks of memory that hold data.
Assembly language is designed to be easily translated into machine language. Although blocks of data may be referred to by name instead of by their machine addresses, assembly language does not provide more sophisticated means of organizing complex information.
Like machine language, assembly language requires detailed knowledge of internal computer architecture. Algorithmic languages Algorithmic languages are designed to express mathematical or symbolic computations.
They can express algebraic operations in notation similar to mathematics and allow the use of subprograms that package commonly used operations for reuse. They were the first high-level languages. It was intended for scientific computations with real number s and collections of them organized as one- or multidimensional arrays.
Its control structures included conditional IF statements, repetitive loops so-called DO loopsand a GOTO statement that allowed nonsequential execution of program code. It was immediately successful and continues to evolve. Like LISP described in the next sectionALGOL had recursive subprograms—procedures that could invoke themselves to solve a problem by reducing it to a smaller problem of the same kind.
ALGOL introduced block structure, in which a program is composed of blocks that might contain both data and instructions and have the same structure as an entire program. Block structure became a powerful tool for building large programs out of small components.
ALGOL contributed a notation for describing the structure of a programming language, Backus—Naur Form, which in some variation became the standard tool for stating the syntax grammar of programming languages. ALGOL was widely used in Europe, and for many years it remained the language in which computer algorithms were published.
Many important languages, such as Pascal and Ada both described laterare its descendants. LISP uses a very simple notation in which operations and their operands are given in a parenthesized list. Although this appears awkward, the notation works well for computers. LISP also uses the list structure to represent data, and, because programs and data use the same structure, it is easy for a LISP program to operate on other programs as data.
Its capacity to structure data and programs through the composition of smaller units is comparable to that of ALGOL. It uses a compact notation and provides the programmer with the ability to operate with the addresses of data as well as with their values.
A committee of computer manufacturers and users and U. Business computations organize and manipulate large quantities of data, and COBOL introduced the record data structure for such tasks. A record clusters heterogeneous data such as a name, ID number, age, and address into a single unit.
This contrasts with scientific languages, in which homogeneous arrays of numbers are common. Page 1 of 6.Most programmers typically know and use a number of different languages but usually have a bias towards a certain set based on a variety of personal, external, and historical factors.
Thanks to the evolution of interfaces, personal computer performance, application availability for various of purposes, miniaturization of devices, network, shared resources and friendly. Start studying chapter 3 CIS Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Search. processor-independent, object-oriented programming language that has become a leading interactive programming environment for the Web. A computer language translation program is an example of system software. TRUE. Computer Programming Timeline Plankalkui was developed by Konrad Zuse. It was the frist high-level non-von Neumann programming language for a computer Cobol (Common Business-Oriented Language)was developed by Grace Murray Hopper. It is primary used in business and finance.
The Birth of Modern Programming: C The C language shook the computer world. Its impact should not be underestimated, because it fundamentally changed the way programming .
The history of programming languages is marked by innovations, diversifications, lateral transfers and social influences; moreover, it represents an intermediate case study between the evolution of human languages and the evolution of technology.
People of Programming Languages An interview project in conjunction with POPL We talk about his accidental path to computer science and the relationship between his K outreach projects, his books, and his research.
including the origins and evolution of the F* programming language. Home / Technology / 9 New Programming Languages To Learn In 9 New Programming Languages To Learn In in Technology January 1, [Estimated read time: 8 minutes] With the evolution of new processors, logic boards and the need for more performance, new programming languages like Go and Rust and are gaining ground.
50 Shades of. Officially, the first programming language for a computer was Plankalkül, developed by Konrad Zuse for the Z3 between and However, it was not implemented until Other early programming languages were developed in the s and s, including Autocode, COBOL, FLOW-MATIC, and LISP.